Dongola

Stara Dongola

Nazwa historyczna: Tungul
Nazwa współczesna: Gaddar
  • Nazwa projektu:

    Polska Misja Archeologiczna w Dongoli (Sudan)
    Polish Archaeological Mission in Old Dongola

  • Typ stanowiska:

    Miasto z cytadelą, nekropole

    Lokalizacja:

    Sudan
    Prowincja Północna
    Starożytna Makuria w Nubii
    Stolica Królestwa Makurii

    Datowanie:

    – okres makurycki (V/VI–XIV wiek n.e.)
    – okres Fundż (Funj), małe królestwo Dongoli (XV–XVII wiek n.e.)

Najciekawsze odkrycia:

– fortyfikacje Cytadeli
– architektura sakralna, katedry, kościoły (17 budowli)
– architektura mieszkalna, pałac króla Ioannesa, domy piętrowe i parterowe
– Klasztor Wielkiego Antoniego
– malowidła ścienne od VI do XIV wieku n.e.
– pracownie ceramiczne
– sala tronowa królów Makurii, od 1316 roku funkcjonująca jako meczet
– krypta arcybiskupa Georgiosa z tekstami greckimi, koptyjskimi i staronubijskimi na ścianach
– liczne stele nagrobne elit makuryckich, kamienne i terakotowe

Historia badań:

Badane przez misję CAŚ UW w latach:

1964–

Typ badań:
Kierownicy badań:

– Antoni Ostrasz (1964–1966)
– Stefan Jakobielski (1966–2006)
– Włodzimierz Godlewski (2006–2017)
– Artur Obłuski (2018–

Instytucje współpracujące:

– Centrum Archeologii Śródziemnomorskiej Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego
– National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums
– Nubian Archaeological Development Organization Qatar-Sudan Archaeological Project (QSAP)

Informacje dodatkowe:

Badania były dofinansowane ze środków Fundacji Forda (konserwacja malowideł z Domu A) oraz przez Qatar-Sudan Archaeological Project no. 10 (Cytadela) i no. 31 (Klasztor). W 2017 roku na badania w Dongoli został przyznany grant ERC dla dr Artura Obłuskiego na projekt „UMMA: Urban Metamorphosis of the community of a Medieval African capital city”.

Opis stanowiska i badań:

Stara Dongola /Fig. 1/ to największe miasto Królestwa Makurii, ze zwartą zabudową na terenie Cytadeli, salą tronową górującą nad Cytadelą, centrum eklezjastycznym z Katedrami (4) i Budowlą Krzyżową (Wielkiego Jezusa), największą budowlą sakralną w Makurii (33 x 33 m, o wysokości 27 m).

Obejmuje też miasto północne z zabudową mieszkalną, piętrową – Dom A wyposażony w łazienkę z podgrzewaną wodą i malowidłami na ścianach, oraz z WC na piętrze. Znajduje się tam też zespół pieców ceramicznych oraz piece do wytopu żelaza. Na pustyni, około 1,5 km od Cytadeli leży klasztor, jest tam także oraz rozległa nekropola z licznymi nagrobkami.

Okres funkcjonowania miasta obejmuje 12 wieków, od założenia Cytadeli w końcu V wieku, do opuszczenia miasta w końcu XVII wieku. Okres rozwoju z licznymi budowlami monumentalnymi przypadł na VI–XIII wiek n.e.

Bibliografia projektu:

Danys, K. (2016). Pottery from Dongola: a stratigraphic assemblage from unit B.I.41. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 25, 761–779.

Calaforra-Rzepka, C., Sosnowska, K., and Moryto-Naumiuk, D. (2015). Conservation work inside the Central Hall in seasons 2009–2012. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 37–42). Warsaw: PCMA UW

Danys, K. (2015). Amphorae from Building SWN.B.I in Dongola. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 117–151). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Dzierzbicka, D. (2015). Amphora stoppers of the 7th century from Old Dongola. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 153–168). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Godlewski, W. (2015). Building SWN.B.V: The Church of Raphael. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 53–64). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Godlewski, W. with appendix by R. Mahler. (2015). Dongola. Seasons in 2012–2013. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 24/1, 325–343.

Godlewski, W. (2015). SWN.B.I.E: Residential quarter of the Funj period (17th century). In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 223–232). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Godlewski, W. (2015). The architecture of the Central Hall. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 15–24). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Godlewski, W. (2015). The fortifications of Dongola and houses to the north of the Citadel. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 183–214). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Godlewski, W. (2015). The southwestern part of Kom H in Dongola: research on the monastic gates and protection work in the cemeteries. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 273–284). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Godlewski, W., Danys, K., and Osypińska, M. (2015). Palatial Building SWN.B.I and earlier relics of Buildings SWN.B.IV and SWN.B.X. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 65–84). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Godlewski, W. and Dzierzbicka, D. (eds). (2015). Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Łajtar, A. (2015). A quotation from Saint Basil’s De jejunio homilia prima 1 in a wall inscription from the Southwest Annex of the Monastery on Kom H in Dongola. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 289–292). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Łajtar, A. (2015). Wall inscriptions in church SWN.B.V on the Citadel of Dongola. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 111–116). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Łajtar, A. (2015). Wall inscriptions in the Southwest Annex to the Monastery on Kom H at Dongola: Report on work in the 2013 season. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 24/1, 344–351.

Mahler, R., Godlewski, W., Danys-Lasek, K., and Czaja, B. (2015). Crypt 3 in the Northwest Annex of the Monastery on Kom H in Dongola: Report on the exploration in 2012. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 24/1, 352–368.

Maślak, S. (2015). Bricks and brick structures in the western part of site SWN on the Citadel. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 85–102). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Maślak, S. (2015). Houses of the Funj period outside the Citadel: materials and structures. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 215–222). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Vantieghem, N. (2015). Documents arabes trouvés à Dongola. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 235–238). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Zielińska, D. (2015). Painted decoration of the Central Hall: preliminary report. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 25–36). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Zielińska, D. (2015). The painted decoration of Building SWN.B.V (Royal Church) on the Citadel: state of research. In W. Godlewski and D. Dzierzbicka (eds), Dongola 2012–2014. Fieldwork, conservation and site management (=PCMA Excavation Series 3) (pp. 103–110). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Danys-Lasek, K. (2014). Dongola: Pottery from Building B.VI (Site C.01), seasons 2010–2011. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 23/1, 311–321.

Godlewski, W. (2014). Dongola 2010–2011. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 23/1, 265–284.

Łajtar, A. (2014). Dongola 2010: Epigraphic report. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 23/1, 285–295.

Łajtar, A. (2014). Epitaph of Staurosaña (†1057), granddaughter (?) of a king Zakharias, found in Dongola. In A. Lohwasser and P. Wolf (eds), Ein Forscherleben zwischen den Welten. Zum 80. Geburtstag von Steffen Wenig (pp. 221–228). Berlin: Sudanarchäologische Gesellschaft zu Berlin.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. (2014). Nubian representations of Nativity discovered in the Monastery in Old Dongola. In J.R. Anderson and D.A. Welsby (eds), The Fourth Cataract and beyond: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference for Nubian Studies (=British Museum Publications on Egypt and Sudan 1) (pp. 917–927). Leuven: Peeters.

Obłuski, A. (2014). Excavation at site C.01 on the citadel of Tungul (Old Dongola), Sudan: Preliminary report. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 23/1, 296–310.

Osypińska, M. (2014). Animal husbandry and meat consumption in Makurite Dongola, Sudan. Faunal evidence from the royal residence area, 6th–17th century. Archeologia, 64, 67–81.

Godlewski, W. (2013). Archbishop Georgios of Dongola. Socio-political change in the kingdom of Makuria in the second half of the 11th century. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 22, 663–677.

Godlewski, W. (2013). Dongola: Ancient Tungul. Archaeological guide (=PCMA Archaeological Guides 1). Warsaw: Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw.

Godlewski, W. (2013). Dongola, Sudan: excavations in 2012. Światowit, 10 (51) Fasc. A, 185–192.

Godlewski, W. (2013). Dongola, Sudan: excavations in 2012–2013. Światowit, 11 (52) Fasc. A, 233–240.

Godlewski, W. (2013). The kingdom of Makuria in the 7th century. The struggle for power and survival. In C.J. Robin and J. Schiettecatte (eds), Les préludes de l’Islam : ruptures et continuités dans les civilisations du Proche-Orient, de l’Afrique orientale, de l’Arabie et de l’Inde à la veille de l’Islam (pp. 85–104). Paris: De Boccard.

Godlewski, W. and Łajtar, A. (2013). Dongola. In Voices from the Nile Valley: Polish archaeology between Alexandria and Dongola. Warsaw: Warsaw University Press.

Obłuski, A., Godlewski, W., Kołątaj, W., Medeksza, S., and Calaforra-Rzepka, C. (2013). The Mosque Building in Dongola. Conservation and revitalization project. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 22, 248–272.

Osypińska, M. (2013). Archaeozoological research on animal remains from excavations in Dongola (Sudan) in 2010. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 22, 229–247. post-Makurian Dongola in Nubia. Preliminary assessment. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 22, 679–720.

Danys-Lasek, K. (2012). Dongola 2009: Pottery from Building I (Kom A). Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 21, 315–329.
Godlewski, W. with appendix by C. Calaforra-Rzepka. (2012). Dongola 2008–2009. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 21, 289–314.

Godlewski, W. (2012). Washtub from the Palace of Ioannes in Dongola. Études et Travaux, 25, 119–125.

Godlewski, W., Mahler, R., and Czaja-Szewczak, B. (2012). Crypts 1 and 2 in the Northwest Annex of the Monastery on Kom H in Dongola: Report on the exploration in 2009. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 21, 338–360.

Łajtar, A. and van der Vliet, J. (2012). Wall inscriptions in a burial vault under the Northwest Annex of the Monastery on Kom H (Dongola 2009). Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 21, 330–337.

Danys-Lasek, K. and Łajtar, A. (2011). An amphora with a Graeco-Nubian inscription found at Dongola. In A. Łajtar and J. van der Vliet (eds), Nubian voices: Studies in Christian Nubian culture (=Journal of Juristic Papyrology Supplement 15) (pp. 37–94). Warsaw: Journal of Juristic Papyrology.

Godlewski, W. (2011). Mosaic floor from the sanctuary of the EC.II cathedral in Dongola. In H. Meyza and I. Zych (eds), Classica orientalia: Essays presented to Wiktor Andrzej Daszewski on his 75th birthday (pp. 193–198). Warsaw: Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archeology, University of Warsaw; Wydawnictwo DiG.

Jakobielski, S. and van der Vliet, J. (2011). From Aswan to Dongola: The epitaph of bishop Joseph (died AD 668). In A. Łajtar and J. van der Vliet (eds), Nubian voices: Studies in Christian Nubian culture (=Journal of Juristic Papyrology Supplement 15) (pp. 15–35). Warsaw: Journal of Juristic Papyrology.

Lichocka, B. (2011). The 12 Nummia coin from Old Dongola. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 20, 245–249.

Łajtar, A. (2011). New finds of Greek epitaphs at Dongola. In A. Łajtar and J. van der Vliet (eds), Nubian voices: Studies in Christian Nubian culture (=Journal of Juristic Papyrology Supplement 15) (pp. 37–94). Warsaw: Journal of Juristic Papyrology.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. (2011). The wall paintings from the Monastery on Kom H in Dongola (=Nubia 3; Dongola 3; PAM Monograph Series 3). Warsaw: PCMA, Warsaw University Press.

Gazda, D. (2010). Excavations at the Monastery Church on Kom H at Old Dongola 2002/2003–2006. Gdańsk Archaeological Museum African Reports, 6, 41–60.

Godlewski, W. (2010). Dongola after the 2008–2010 seasons: Royalty, saints and blessed bishops. Sudan & Nubia, 14, 75–82.

Godlewski, W. (2010). Old Dongola. Kom A (Citadel), 2007. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 19, 313–326.

Godlewski, W. and Kociankowska-Bożek, J. (2010). Early Makuria Research Project. Season 2007. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 19, 494–499.

Jakobielski, S. (2010). The Holy Trinity Monastery in Old Dongola. Excavations 2002/2003–2006. Gdańsk Archaeological Museum African Reports, 6, 69–90.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. (2010). New iconographical elements in Old Dongola painting. Gdańsk Archaeological Museum African Reports, 6, 119–124.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. (2010). Two unique paintings in the monastery on Kom H in Old Dongola. In W W. Godlewski and A. Łajtar (eds), Between the cataracts: Proceedings of the 11th Conference for Nubian studies, Warsaw University, 27 August – 2 September 2006, II.2. Session papers (=PAM Supplement Series 2.2/2) (pp. 705–712). Warsaw: Warsaw University Press.

Pluskota, K. (2010). The pottery from Old Dongola – selected questions. In W. Godlewski and A. Łajtar (eds), Between the cataracts: Proceedings of the 11th Conference for Nubian studies, Warsaw University, 27 August – 2 September 2006, II.1. Session papers (=PAM Supplement Series 2.2/1) (pp. 255–262). Warsaw: Warsaw University Press.

Zielińska, D. (2010). Edifice without parallel: Cruciform Building on the Old Dongola citadel. In W. Godlewski and A. Łajtar (eds), Between the cataracts: Proceedings of the 11th Conference for Nubian studies, Warsaw University, 27 August – 2 September 2006, II.2. Session papers (=PAM Supplement Series 2.2/2) (pp. 695–703). Warsaw: Warsaw University Press.

Bagińska, D. (2008). Christian pottery from Old Dongola (Kom H). Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 18, 361–375.

Gazda, D. (2008). The Monastery Church on Kom H in Old Dongola after two seasons of excavations in 2006. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 18, 349–360.

Godlewski, W. (2008). MtoM. Early Makuria Research Project, season 2006. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 18, 463–476.

Jakobielski, S. (2008). The Holy Trinity Monastery in Old Dongola. In W. Godlewski and A. Łajtar (eds), Between the cataracts: Proceedings of the 11th Conference for Nubian studies, Warsaw University, 27 August – 2 September 2006, I. Main papers (=PAM Supplement Series 2.1) (pp. 283–302). Warsaw: Warsaw University Press.

Jakobielski, S. and Martens-Czarnecka, M. (2008). Old Dongola. Fieldwork, seasons 2005/2006 and 2006. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 18, 325–342.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. (2008). A scene of ritual dance (Old Dongola – Sudan). Études et Travaux, 22, 115–125.

Osypińska, M. (2008). Faunal remains from the monastery in Old Dongola (Kom H). Season 2006. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 18, 376–384.

Godlewski, W. (2007). King Qalidurut’s Dongola: Arabic sources and archaeology. In B. Gratien (ed.), Mélanges offerts à Francis Geus (pp. 131–140). Villeneuve-d’Ascq: Université Charles-de-Gaulle – Lille 3.

Godlewski, W. (2007). Old Dongola. Kom A (Acropolis), 2005. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 17, 287–299.

Godlewski, W. (2006). Dongola: City of kings and bishops. Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Godlewski, W. (2006). The churches of Dongola, their origin and importance in the general line of development of church architecture in Makuria. In I. Caneva and A. Roccati (eds), Acta Nubica: Proceedings of the X International Conference of Nubian studies, Rome, 9–14 September 2002 (pp. 263–286). Rome: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Libreria dello Stato.

Jakobielski, S. (ed.). (2006). Polskie wykopaliska w Starej Dongoli: 45 lat współpracy archeologicznej z Sudanem / Polish excavations at Old Dongola: 45 years of the archaeological co-operation with the Sudan. Warsaw: Muzeum Narodowe.

Gazda, D. (2005). Monastery Church on Kom H in Old Dongola. Third and fourth season of excavations (2004, 2004/5). Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 16, 285–295.

Godlewski, W. (2005). MtoM. Early Makuria Research Project. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 16, 385–388.

Jakobielski, S. (2005). Old Dongola. Fieldwork in 2004. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 16, 259–272.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. (2005). Stylistic homogeneity of groups of paintings in the monastery in Old Dongola. Gdańsk Archaeological Museum African Reports, 3, 159–173.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. (2005). Wall paintings discovered in Dongola in the 2004 season. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 16, 273–284.

Pluskota, K. (2005). Amphorae from Old Dongola. Evolution of local products (exploration of kiln R1 F). Gdańsk Archaeological Museum African Reports, 3, 227–232.

Godlewski, W. (2004). Old Dongola. In D.A. Welsby and J.R. Anderson (eds), Sudan: Ancient treasures. An exhibition of recent discoveries from the Sudan National Museum (pp. 209–213). London: British Museum Press.

Godlewski, W. (2004). Old Dongola. Kom A (Acropolis), 2003. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 15, 193–215.

Osypińska, M. (2004). Animal bone remains from Old Dongola. Osteological material from Building B.I on Kom A. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 15, 224–230.

Zielińska, D. (2004). Painted decoration of the Cruciform Building in Dongola. Preliminary report. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 15, 216–223.

Gazda, D. (2003). The Monastery Church on Kom H in Old Dongola 2002. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 14, 230–236.

Godlewski, W. (2003). Dongola: stolica królestwa Makurii (Dongola: the capital of the kingdom of Makuria). Archeologia Żywa, 8(3), 8–11.

Jakobielski, S. (2003). Old Dongola. Fieldwork in 2002. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 14, 211–229.

Łajtar, A. (2003). Catalogue of the Greek inscriptions in the Sudan National Museum at Khartoum (I. Khartoum Greek) (=Orientalia lovaniensia analecta 122). Leuven: Peeters.

Łajtar, A. and Twardecki, A. (2003). Catalogue des inscriptions grecques du Musée national de Varsovie (=Journal of Juristic Papyrology Supplement 2). Warsaw: Fundacja im. Rafała Taubenschlaga.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. (2003). New wall paintings discovered at the Monastery of the Holy Trinity in Old Dongola (Sudan) during the 2000 excavation campaign. Gdańsk Archaeological Museum African Reports, 2, 145–153.

Wiewióra, M. (2003). Fortifications in the Southern Dongola Reach of the Nile. In B. Żurawski, Survey and excavations between Old Dongola and Ez-Zuma (=Nubia 2; Southern Dongola Reach Survey 1) (pp. 493–506). Warsaw: Neriton.

Żurawski, B. (2003). Survey and excavations between Old Dongola and Ez-Zuma (=Nubia 2; Southern Dongola Reach Survey 1). Warsaw: Neriton.

Godlewski, W. (2002). Introduction to the Golden Age of Makuria (9th–11th century). Africana Bulletin, 50, 75–98.

Godlewski, W. (2002). Old Dongola. Kom A, 2001. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 13, 203–216.

Łajtar, A. (2002). Georgios, Archbishop of Dongola (†1113) and his epitaph. In T. Derda, J. Urbanik, and M. Węcowski (eds), Euergesias Charin: Studies presented to Benedetto Bravo and Ewa Wipszycka by their disciples (=Journal of Juristic Papyrology Supplement 1) (pp. 159–192). Warsaw: Fundacja im. Rafała Taubenschlaga.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. (2002). Die christliche Malerei in Faras und Dongola. Vernissage. Die Zeitschrift zur Ausstellung, 13, 26–33.

Grossmann, P. (2001). Bemerkung zur Kirchenarchitektur in Old Dongola, am Rande eines Buches von Przemysław M. Gartkiewicz. In S. Jakobielski and P.O. Scholz (eds), Dongola-Studien: 35 Jahre polnischer Forschungen im Zentrum des makuritischen Reiches (=Bibliotheca Nubica et Aethiopica 7) (pp. 387–393). Warsaw: ZAŚ PAN.

Jakobielski, S. (2001). 35 years of Polish excavations at Old Dongola. A fact file. In S. Jakobielski and P.O. Scholz (eds), Dongola-Studien: 35 Jahre polnischer Forschungen im Zentrum des makuritischen Reiches (=Bibliotheca Nubica et Aethiopica 7) (pp. 1–48). Warsaw: ZAŚ PAN.

Jakobielski, S. (2001). Das Kloster der Heiligen Dreifaltigkeit. Bauphasen des nordwestlichen Anbaus. In S. Jakobielski and P.O. Scholz (eds), Dongola-Studien: 35 Jahre polnischer Forschungen im Zentrum des makuritischen Reiches (=Bibliotheca Nubica et Aethiopica 7) (pp. 141–168). Warsaw: ZAŚ PAN.

Jakobielski, S. (2001). Old Dongola. Season 2000. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 12, 265–279.

Jakobielski, S. and Scholz, P.O. (eds). (2001). Dongola-Studien: 35 Jahre polnischer Forschungen im Zentrum des makuritischen Reiches (=Bibliotheca Nubica et Aethiopica 7). Warsaw: ZAŚ PAN.

Łajtar, A. and Pluskota, K. (2001). Inscribed vessels from the Monastery of the Holy Trinity at Old Dongola. In S. Jakobielski and P.O. Scholz (eds), Dongola-Studien: 35 Jahre polnischer Forschungen im Zentrum des makuritischen Reiches (=Bibliotheca Nubica et Aethiopica 7) (pp. 335–355). Warsaw: ZAŚ PAN.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. (2001). Nubian king – A painting from the Monastery in Dongola. In S. Jakobielski and P.O. Scholz (eds), Dongola-Studien: 35 Jahre polnischer Forschungen im Zentrum des makuritischen Reiches (=Bibliotheca Nubica et Aethiopica 7) (pp. 285–300). Warsaw: ZAŚ PAN.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. (2001). Suggestions on dating of some murals from the Monastery in Old Dongola. Études et Travaux, 19, 217–236.

Martens-Czarnecka, M. (2001). Wall paintings discovered in Old Dongola. In S. Jakobielski and P.O. Scholz (eds), Dongola-Studien: 35 Jahre polnischer Forschungen im Zentrum des makuritischen Reiches (=Bibliotheca Nubica et Aethiopica 7) (pp. 253–284). Warsaw: ZAŚ PAN.

Pluskota, K. (2001). The kiln sites of Old Dongola. In S. Jakobielski and P.O. Scholz (eds), Dongola-Studien: 35 Jahre polnischer Forschungen im Zentrum des makuritischen Reiches (=Bibliotheca Nubica et Aethiopica 7) (pp. 357–366). Warsaw: ZAŚ PAN.

Ryl-Preibisz, I. (2001). Elements of architectural decoration from Old Dongola. In S. Jakobielski and P.O. Scholz (eds), Dongola-Studien: 35 Jahre polnischer Forschungen im Zentrum des makuritischen Reiches (=Bibliotheca Nubica et Aethiopica 7) (pp. 367–387). Warsaw: ZAŚ PAN.

Scholz, P.O. (2001). Randbemerkungen zur liturgisch-kultischen Funktion des Xenodochiums des Dreifaltigkeitsklosters in Alt-Dongola. In S. Jakobielski and P.O. Scholz (eds), Dongola-Studien: 35 Jahre polnischer Forschungen im Zentrum des makuritischen Reiches (=Bibliotheca Nubica et Aethiopica 7) (pp. 169–251). Warsaw: ZAŚ PAN.

Żurawski, B. (2001). Dongola, the city of the Makurians (literary sources to 1956). In S. Jakobielski and P.O. Scholz (eds), Dongola-Studien: 35 Jahre polnischer Forschungen im Zentrum des makuritischen Reiches (=Bibliotheca Nubica et Aethiopica 7) (pp. 75–141). Warsaw: ZAŚ PAN.

Godlewski, W. (2000). Old Dongola. Kom A, 1999. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 11, 197–206.

Jakobielski, S. (2000). Old Dongola. Documentation work in the monastery, 1999. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 11, 207–208.

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