Alexandria, Kom el-Dikka

Alexandria – Kom el-Dikka

  • Project name:

    Polish-Egyptian Archaeological and Conservation Mission to Kom el-Dikka

  • Type of site:

    Ancient city and necropolis

    Location:

    Egypt
    Modern Alexandria, center of ancient Alexandria

    Dating:

    – Ptolemaic period (2nd–1st century BC)
    – Roman period (1st–3rd century AD)
    – late antique and Byzantine period (4th–7th century AD)
    – early Islamic period (8th–13th century AD)

    It is the only ancient “university” discovered so far in the whole of the Mediterranean area.

Most interesting finds:

– complex of late Roman auditoria – the only archaeologically excavated ancient university complex /Fig. 1, 2/
– complex of Imperial baths with cisterns (and a unique water tower) /Fig. 3, 4/
– the only Roman theater excavated in Egypt /Fig. 5, 6/
– monumental portico /Fig. 13/
– late Roman domestic quarter
– houses from the Roman period decorated with mosaics in the domestic quarter /Fig. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12/

History of research:

Dates of PCMA mission’s work:

1960–

Type of research:

excavations, conservation project

Directors:

Leszek Dąbrowski (1960–1962)
Stanisław Jasiewicz (1962)
Władysław Kubiak (1963–1966)
Wojciech Kołątaj (1966–1972)
Mieczysław Rodziewicz (1972–1984)
Wojciech Kołątaj (1984–2001)
Grzegorz Majcherek, Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw (2002–)

Directors of archaeological study programs reporting to the Director of research:

Zsolt Kiss (1986–1987)
Grzegorz Majcherek (1988–2001)

Co-operating institutions:

– Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw
– Egyptian Ministry of State for Antiquities
– National Museum in Warsaw
– Institute of Mediterranean and Oriental Cultures Polish Academy of Sciences (formerly Research Center for Mediterranean Archaeology Polish Academy of Sciences)
– State Archaeological Museum in Warsaw
– Warsaw University of Technology

Additional information:

Work on Kom el-Dikka was started in 1960 by Prof. Kazimierz Michałowski as salvage excavations but soon turned into regular archaeological fieldwork. It has been conducted from the very beginning by the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw in close cooperation with the Egyptian Ministry of State for Antiquities. A joint Polish-Egyptian mission was established in the 1980s in order to realize a large-scale conservation project aimed at transforming the site into an archaeological park. The Prime Minister of Poland and the Andrew Mellon Foundation provided funds for the mission. In 1998–1999, as part of a grant awarded by USAID, a pavilion housing the exposition of floor mosaics undergoing treatment in the original place of discovery was erected.

Description of the site and research:

Kom el-Dikka, located in the center of modern Alexandria, is both the biggest and the only archaeological site which allows researchers to study the urban fabric of this ancient city in a wider urban context /Fig. 14, 15, 19/. The excavations conducted here for more than half a century have led to a better understanding of the city’s past, from topography and architecture to the daily life of its inhabitants, during a very long period: from the 2nd century BC through the 14th century AD.

In the first three centuries of our era, the whole area of the site was covered with magnificent city residences. Their rich architectural decoration, wall paintings and sculptures, including depictions of Alexander the Great himself /Fig. 16/, as well as colorful floor mosaics with geometric, floral and figurative decorations /Fig. 9, 10, 11, 12/ are the best illustration of the grandeur and wealth of the city’s inhabitants. At the end of the 3rd century AD, the city was considerably destroyed as a result of political turbulence, rebellions and bloody pacifications ordered by Roman emperors. Although it was later rebuilt, it never returned to its former glory. New, significantly smaller and more modest houses, often multi-storied and inhabited by several families, accommodated now also workshops producing bronze and glass objects.

In the 4th century AD, the center of the city became a huge construction site. The core of the new large-scale urban project was a complex of big Imperial baths flanked by monumental colonnades /Fig. 3, 4/. Numerous public buildings were built around it /Fig. 15/, including spacious bathing chambers which could accommodate hundreds of users every day, bathing pools, gymnasia for sports, public latrines. A complex system of furnaces was used for heating water, which was drawn from the nearby cisterns /Fig. 17, 18/.

A wide colonnade portico running north-south was a monumental setting for the unique academic complex, comprising 22 auditoria, which was built here in the 6th century AD. It is the only ancient “university” discovered so far in the whole of the Mediterranean area. No wonder that ancient Alexandria, at the time one of the leading centers of education and learning, is nowadays called the “Oxford” of late antiquity.

The perfectly preserved auditoria /Fig. 1, 2/, built in a row along the portico, were furnished with low stone benches for students and an elevated seat for the lecturer. The nearby theater, a symbol of both the site and the city, was first used as an odeon for music performances. At the beginning of the 6th century, when its auditorium was rebuilt in a horseshoe shape and a roof was added, the theater became the largest room of the complex, the auditorium maximum. Both the auditoria with the theater and the baths constituted the social and cultural center of late antique Alexandria.

At the end of the 7th century AD, Alexandria was in decline. Grand public edifices were abandoned and devastated. In the following centuries, the whole area was turned into a large rubbish dump and cemetery – a truly symbolic end to a great city.

Conservation is an important part of the mission’s work at Kom el-Dikka. As a result, an archaeological park of almost 4 ha was established at the site /Fig. 13, 18, 20, 21, 22/. Monumental ancient buildings, the only ones of their kind preserved in the whole of Egypt, can be seen here in their original urban setting. The theater and auditoria, baths, cisterns, houses and colonnade porticoes have become part of the landscape of the modern metropolis and are nowadays one of the biggest tourist attractions.

Other materials about the mission:
Research results:

Season 2015
Season 2014
Season 2013
Season 2012
Season 2011
Season 2010
Season 2009
Season 2008
Season 2007
Season 2006

Events connected with the project:

2017-04-01 Kom el-Dikka, Alexandria: opening of the visitors’ route
2017-04-01 Opening in the Kom el-Dikka Archaeological Park
with accompanying leaflet: Alexandria, Kom el-Dikka

2017-12-06 Conservation award for PCMA architect

2012-06-28 Exhibition: “The Alexandrian School. Polish research on Kom el-Dikka 1960-2011
with accompanying book (in Polish): “Starożytna Aleksandria. 50 lat polskich badań archeologicznych i prac konserwatorskich na Kom el-Dikka”

Media information and popular publications

Kucharczyk, R. (2017). W parku archeologicznym na Kom el-Dikka (In the Kom el-Dikka Archaeological Park). Pismo Uczelni „UW”, 2, 18–19.
Tkaczow, B. (2014). Pod Muz egidą (Under the aegis of the Muses). Polityka. Niezbędnik Inteligenta.
Kucharczyk, R., Majcherek, G., Pawlicki, F., and Koła̜taj, W. (2012). Starożytna Aleksandria. Polskie badania archeologiczne i prace konserwatorskie na Kom el-Dikka (Ancient Alexandria. Polish archaeological excavations and conservation work at Kom el-Dikka). Warsaw: PCMA UW.
Tkaczow, B. (2005). Odkrywanie starożytnej Aleksandrii (Discovering ancient Alexandria). In Egipt: bogowie i faraonowie. Oxford Educational.
Derda, T. (2004). Akademia Aleksandryjska. Nowe odkrycie polskich archeologów (The Alexandrian Academy. New discovery of Polish archaeologists). Mówią Wieki, 3, 22–26.
Derda, T. and Markiewicz, T. (2004). Odkopana akademia (Uncovered academy). Świat Nauki, 11, 49–57.
Łukaszewicz, A. (2004). Rok 41 – Rzym i Aleksandria (Year 41 – Rome and Alexandria). In A. Sołtysiak (ed.), Zamach stanu w dawnych społecznościach (pp. 115–120). Warszawa: OBTA.
Majcherek, G. (2004). Odkrycie starożytnej akademii w Aleksandrii (The discovery of an ancient academy in Alexandria). Kwartalnik Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 3, 10–11.
Łukaszewicz, A. (2001). Kamień z Kom el-Dikka (A stone from Kom el-Dikka). Archeologia Żywa, 6(1), 16–19.
Łukaszewicz, A. (1997). Polacy na Kom el-Dikka czyli Alexandrea rediviva (Poles on Kom el-Dikka, or Alexandrea rediviva). Archeologia Żywa, 2(4), 32–34.
Tkaczow, B. (1988). Aleksandria: najjaśniejsza, najpiękniejsza, najświetniejsza (Alexandria: the most brilliant and beautiful). Warszawa: Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza.

Project bibliography:
Monographs

Tkaczow, B. (2010). Architectural styles of ancient Alexandria: Elements of architectural decoration from Polish excavations at Kom el-Dikka (1960–1993) (=Alexandrie 8). Warsaw: Centre d’archéologie méditerranéenne de l’Académie polonaise des Sciences.

Kołątaj, W., Majcherek, G., and Parandowska, E. (2007). Villa of the Birds: The excavation and preservation of the Kom al-Dikka mosaics (=American Research Center in Egypt Conservation Series 3). Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Kiss, Z., Majcherek, G., Meyza, H., Rysiewski, H., and Tkaczow, B. (2000). Fouilles polonaises à Kôm el-Dikka (1986–1987) (=Alexandrie 7). Warsaw: Centre d’archéologie méditerranéenne de l’Académie polonaise des sciences.

Tkaczow, B. (1993). The topography of ancient Alexandria: An archaeological map. Warsaw: Zakład Archeologii Śródziemnomorskiej, Polskiej Akadmii Nauk.

Koła̜taj, W. (1992). Imperial baths at Kom el-Dikka (=Alexandrie 6). Warsaw: Zakład Archeologii Śródziemnomorskiej Polskie Akademii Nauk.

Kiss, Z. (1989). Les ampoules de Saint Ménas découvertes à Kôm el-Dikka: 1961–1981 (=Alexandrie 5). Varsovie: PWN.

Kiss, Z. (1988). Sculptures des fouilles polonaises à Kom el-Dikka: 1960–1982 (=Alexandrie 4). Varsovie: Editions Scientifiques de Pologne.

Promińska, E. (1985). Variations de taille des habitants d’Alexandrie au cours des siècles (=Travaux du Centre d’archéologie méditerranéenne de l’Académie polonaise des sciences 25). Warsaw: Éditions scientifiques de Pologne.

Rodziewicz, M. (1984). Les habitations romaines tardives d’Alexandrie: à la lumière des fouilles polonaises à Kôm el-Dikka (=Alexandrie 3). Varsovie: Éditions Scientifiques de Pologne.

Borkowski, Z. (1981). Inscriptions des factions à Alexandrie (=Alexandrie 2). Varsovie: PWN.

Rodziewicz, M. (1976). La céramique romaine tardive d’Alexandrie (=Alexandrie 1). Varsovie: Éditions scientifiques de Pologne.

Promińska, E. (1972). Investigations on the population of Muslim Alexandria: Anthropological-demographic study (=Travaux du Centre d’archéologie méditerranéenne de l’Académie polonaise des sciences 12). Warsaw: Éditions scientifiques de Pologne.

Michałowski, K. (1971). Alexandria. Warsaw: Arkady.

Articles and reports

Majcherek, G. (2017). Alexandria, Kom el-Dikka. Season 2016. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 26/1, in press.

Redlak, M. (2017). Egyptian imitations of Chinese celadon from the 13th–15th centuries from Kom el-Dikka in Alexandria. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 26/1, in press.

Kucharczyk, R. (2016). Glass finds from areas U and G at the Kom el-Dikka site in Alexandria (excavations in 2012 and 2013). Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 25, 87–103.

Kucharczyk, R. (2016). Mosaic floral plaque fragment from Alexandria. Études et Travaux, 29, 125–134.

Mahler, R. and Okularczyk, U. (2016). Kom el-Dikka 2014: human bones from Area U. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 25, 64–86.

Majcherek, G. (2016). Alexandria, Kom-el-Dikka. Seasons 2014–2015. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 25, 33–52.

Kucharczyk, R. (2015). Islamic glass from sector U (2012–2013). Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 24/1, 73–86.

Kulicka, E. (2015). Islamic necropolis at Kom el-Dikka in Alexandria: research in the 2010–2013 seasons. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 24/1, 62–72.

Lach, K. (2015). Monetization of Roman Egypt during the Flavian dynasty (AD 69–96): The case of Alexandria and Berenike. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 24/1, 727–734.

Majcherek, G. (2015). Alexandria. Excavations and preservation work on Kom el-Dikka. Seasons 2012 and 2013. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 24/1, 29–61.

Kiss, Z. (2014). Têtes alexandrines. In G. Tallet and C. Zivie-Coche (eds), Le myrte et la rose: mélanges offerts à Françoise Dunand par ses élèves, collègues et amis I (pp. 143–148). Montpellier: Équipe Égypte nilotique et méditerranéenne.

Kucharczyk, R. (2014). A fragment of dichroic glass from Alexandria. Journal of Glass Studies, 56, 29–35.

Łukaszewicz, A. (2014). Alexander and Alexandria – a view from Kom el-Dikka. In V. Grieb, K. Nawotka, and A. Wojciechowska (eds), Alexander the Great and the East: History, art, tradition, Wrocław, Breslau, 18.–19. Nov. 2011 (pp. 307–314). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

Łukaszewicz, A. (2014). Lecture halls at Kom el-Dikka in Alexandria. In M. Dzielska and K. Twardowska (eds), Divine men and women in the history and society of late Hellenism (pp. 101–112). Kraków: Jagiellonian University Press.

Majcherek, G. and Kucharczyk, R. (2014). Alexandria. Excavations and preservation work on Kom el-Dikka. Season 2011. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 23/1, 23–44.

Tkaczow, B. (2014). Fragments of wall paintings from Polish excavations at Kom el-Dikka, Alexandria. Études et Travaux, 27, 421–439.

Dobrowolski, J. (2013). Villa of the Birds five years later: Early Roman mosaics in Alexandria, Egypt. In A. ben A. Ben Khader, M. Demas, and T. Roby (eds), Lessons learned: Reflecting on the theory and practice of mosaic conservation. Proceedings of the 9th ICCM Conference, Hammamet, Tunisia, November 29–December 3, 2005 (pp. 51–56). Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.

Łukaszewicz, A. (2013). From Thebaid to Alexandria: Polish archaeological activities in Egypt. Kiev: National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Majcherek, G. (2013). Alexandria. Excavations and preservation work on Kom el-Dikka. Preliminary report 2009/2010. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 22, 33–53.

Majcherek, G. (2013). Archéologie d’un campus: Alexandrie (Ve–VIIe siècle). In É. Vallet, S. Aube, and T. Kouamé (eds), Lumières de la sagesse: écoles médiévales d’Orient et d’Occident (pp. 28–29). Paris: Institut du monde arabe.

Meyza, H. and Więch, M. (2013). Cypriot Sigillata from Kom el-Dikka excavations in Alexandria found before 1986. Études et Travaux, 26.2, 463–471.

Tkaczow, B. (2013). Historical topography of ancient Alexandria. Études et Travaux, 26.2, 685–697.

Juchniewicz, K. and Lach, K. (2012). Auditorium E: exploration in season 2009, appendix to: G. Majcherek, Alexandria Kom el-Dikka: excavations and preservation work. Preliminary report 2008/2009. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 21, 43–47.

Kucharczyk, R. (2012). Glass vessels decorated with Christian symbols from Alexandria. Études et Travaux, 25, 149–158.

Łukaszewicz, A. (2012). Second thoughts on the beginnings of Alexandria. Études et Travaux, 25, 205–211.

Mahler, R. (2012). Kom el-Dikka 2005–2009: selected anthropological research. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 21, 49–58.

Majcherek, G. (2012). Alexandria Kom el-Dikka: excavations and preservation work. Preliminary report 2008/2009. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 21, 27–48.

Jegliński, A. (2011). Numismatic finds from Kom el-Dikka (Alexandria), 2008. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 20, 70–79.

Kucharczyk, R. (2011). Glass from Area F on Kom el-Dikka (Alexandria). Excavations 2008. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 20, 56–69.

Kucharczyk, R. (2011). Glass medallion in the shape of a lion’s head mask. In H. Meyza and I. Zych (eds), Classica orientalia: Essays presented to Wiktor Andrzej Daszewski on his 75th birthday (pp. 277–285). Warsaw: PCMA UW; Wydawnictwo DiG.

Kulicka, E. (2011). Remarks on the typology of Islamic graves from the cemeteries on Kom el-Dikka in Alexandria. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 20, 483–498.

Kulicka, E. (2011). The Islamic graveyard on Kom el-Dikka in Alexandria. Excavation season 2007/2008. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 20, 52–55.

Lichocka, B. (2011). Claudius’s issue of silver drachmas in Alexandria: Serapis Anastole. In N. Holmes (ed.), Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009 (pp. 800–808). Glasgow: International Numismatic Council.

Łukaszewicz, A. (2011). Caesar in Alexandria. Fragmentary Latin dipinti discovered at Kom el-Dikka. Journal of Juristic Papyrology, 41, 79–92.

Majcherek, G. (2011). Alexandria: Kom el-Dikka excavations and preservation work. Preliminary report 2007/2008. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 20, 35–51.

Kiss, Z. (2010). Alexandria in the fourth to seventh centuries. In R.S. Bagnall (ed.), Egypt in the Byzantine world, 300–700 (pp. 187–207). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kiss, Z. (2010). L’édifice théâtral de Kom el-Dikka – quelques mythes et plusieurs question. In D. Robinson and A. Wilson (eds), Alexandria and the North-Western Delta: Joint conference proceedings of Alexandria: city and harbour (Oxford 2004) and, the trade and topography of Egypt’s North-West Delta, 8th century BC to 8th century AD (Berlin 2006) (pp. 91–101). Oxford: Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology, Institute of Archaeology.

Kucharczyk, R. (2010). Glass from Area F on Kom el-Dikka (Alexandria). Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 19, 56–70.

Kulicka, E. (2010). The Islamic graveyard on Kom el-Dikka in Alexandria. Excavations in the 2006/2007 field season. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 19, 49–55.

Łukaszewicz, A. (2010). Textual research and the life of the amphorae. Some evidence from Late Roman Alexandria. In S. Menchelli, S. Santoro, M. Pasquinucci, and G. Guiducci (eds), LRCW 3: Late Roman coarse wares, cooking wares and amphorae in the Mediterranean. Archaeology and archaeometry. Comparison between Western and Eastern Mediterranean II (=BAR International Series 2185/2) (pp. 941–944). Oxford: Archaeopress.

Łukaszewicz, A. (2010). Von Alexandria bis Oberägypten. Polnische Archäologie im Lande der Pharaonen. Jahrbuch des Wissenschaftlichen Zentrums der Polnischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, 3, 173–192.

Majcherek, G. (2010). Alexandria. Excavations and preservation work. Preliminary report 2006/2007. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 19, 31–48.

Majcherek, G. (2010). Discovering Alexandria – Archaeological update on the finds from Kom el-Dikka. In D. Robinson and A. Wilson (eds), Alexandria and the North-Western Delta: Joint conference proceedings of Alexandria: city and harbour (Oxford 2004) and, the trade and topography of Egypt’s North-West Delta, 8th century BC to 8th century AD (Berlin 2006) (pp. 75–89). Oxford: Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology, Institute of Archaeology.

Majcherek, G. (2010). The auditoria on Kom el-Dikka. A glimpse of late antique education in Alexandria. In T. Gagos and A. Hyatt (eds), Proceedings of the 25th International Congress of Papyrology Ann Arbor, July 29 – August 4, 2007 (pp. 471–484). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Library, Scholarly Publishing Office.

Kucharczyk, R. (2009). Islamic scratch-engraved glass from Alexandria (Kom el-Dikka). Journal of Glass Studies, 51, 40–52.

Łukaszewicz, A. (2009). Od Aleksandrii do Doliny Królów (From Alexandria to the Valley of the Kings). In B. Kaim (ed.), Blisko i daleko: księga jubileuszowa Instytutu Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego (pp. 229–232). Warszawa: Instytut Archeologii UW.

Łukaszewicz, A. (2009). Ostraca and architecture at Kom el-Dikka. Journal of Juristic Papyrology, 39, 121–131.

Majcherek, G. (2009). Alexandria 2005/2006 preliminary report. Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Égypte, 82.

Majcherek, G. (2009). Alexandria. Excavations and preservation work. Preliminary report 2007/2008. Mishkah. Egyptian Journal of Islamic Archaeology, 4, 153–175.

Rodziewicz, E. (2009). Ivory, bone, glass and other production at Alexandria, 5th-9th centuries. In M.M. Mango (ed.), Byzantine trade, 4th–12th centuries: The archaeology of local, regional and international exchange. Papers of the thirty-eighth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, St John’s College, University of Oxford, March 2004 (pp. 83–95). Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.

Kulicka, E. (2008). Moslem cemetery in Areas CW and L on Kom el-Dikka (excavations in the 2005/2006 season), appendix to: G. Majcherek, Kom el-Dikka. Excavation and preservation work, 2005/2006. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 18, 45–50.

Lichocka, B. (2008). Un tétradrachme de Néron, dit « miroir de Néron », trouvé à Kôm el-Dikka à Alexandrie. In D. Gerin, A. Geissen, and M. Amandry (eds), Aegyptiaca serta in Soheir Bakhoum memoriam: mélanges de numismatique, d’iconographie et d’histoire (pp. 49–58). Milano: Ennerre.

Majcherek, G. (2008). Academic life of late antique Alexandria: view from the field. In M. el Abbadi and O.M. Fathallah (eds), What happened to the ancient library of Alexandria? (pp. 191–206). Leiden: Brill.

Majcherek, G. (2008). Kom el-Dikka. Excavation and preservation work, 2005/2006. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 18, 29–40.

Kucharczyk, R. (2007). Late Roman/early Byzantine glass from the auditoria on Kom el-Dikka in Alexandria. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 17, 45–53.

Mahler, R. (2007). Analysis of skeletal material from the Kom el-Dikka site, 2004/2005 season. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 17, 40–44.

Majcherek, G. (2007). Alexandria – current research. In E. Laskowska-Kusztal (ed.), Seventy years of Polish archaeology in Egypt (pp. 125–134). Warsaw: PCMA UW.

Majcherek, G. (2007). Houses of Alexandria. Some aspects of architectural development in the Roman period. In K. Galor and T. Waliszewski (eds), From Antioch to Alexandria: Recent studies in domestic architecture (pp. 201–207). Warsaw: Institute of Archaeology, University of Warsaw.

Majcherek, G. (2007). Kom el-Dikka. Excavation and preservation work. Preliminary report, 2004/2005. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 17, 21–34.

Majcherek, G. (2007). The late Roman auditoria of Alexandria: an archaeological overview. In T. Derda, T. Markiewicz, and E. Wipszycka (eds), Alexandria: Auditoria of Kom el-Dikka and late antique education (=Journal of Juristic Papyrology Supplement 8) (pp. 11–50). Warsaw: University of Warsaw, Faculty of Law and Administration.

Łukaszewicz, A. (2006). Encore Isidoros : du nouveau sur un turbulent gymnasiarque d’Alexandrie. In D. Długosz (ed.), Grecs, Juifs, Polonais à la recherche des racines de la civilisation européenne: actes du colloque (pp. 154–159). Paris: Centre scientifique de l’Académie polonaise des sciences à Paris.

Łukaszewicz, A. (2006). Violence in Alexandria. Classica Cracoviensia, 10, 132–134.

Kucharczyk, R. (2005). Islamic glass from the auditoria on Kom el-Dikka in Alexandria. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 16, 31–41.

Lichocka, B. (2005). Bilan des découverts monétaires dans les fouilles polonaises d’Alexandrie. In F. Duyrat and O. Picard (eds), L’exception égyptienne ? Production et échanges monétaires en Égypte hellénistique et romaine. Actes du colloque d’Alexandrie, 13–15 avril 2002 (=Études Alexandrines 10) (pp. 299–311). Cairo: Institut français d’archéologie orientale.

Lichocka, B. (2005). Late Roman coin-finds from Kom el-Dikka in Alexandria. In C. Alfaro, C. Marcos, and P. Otero (eds), XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003: Actas (pp. 763–769). Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura, Secretaría General Técnica.

Majcherek, G. (2005). Kom el-Dikka: excavation and preservation work, 2003/2004. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 16, 17–30.

Meyza, H. (2005). Stamped late Hellenistic and early Roman fine wares found at Kom el-Dikka in Alexandria before 1987. Études et Travaux, 20, 121–136.

Kucharczyk, R. (2004). Two Roman toilet bottles from Kom el-Dikka. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 15, 43–45.

Lis, J. (2004). Mosaic conservation at Kom el-Dikka in Alexandria in 2002. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 15, 39–42.

Majcherek, G. (2004). Alexandria’s long-distance trade in Late Antiquity – the amphora evidence. In J. Eiring and J. Lund (eds), Transport amphorae and trade in the Eastern Mediterranean: Acts of the international colloquium at the Danish Institute at Athens, September 26–29, 2002 (=Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens 5) (pp. 229–238). Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

Majcherek, G. (2004). Kom el-Dikka, excavations and preservation work, 2002/2003. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 15, 25–38.

Redlak, M. (2004). Syro-Egyptian underglaze painted ceramics from Kom el-Dikka, 13th-15th century. Study report (2002/2003). Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 15, 46–52.

Majcherek, G. (2003). Mosaic floors from Roman triclinia in Alexandria. Evolution of techniques and design. In Z. Hawass and L.P. Brock (eds), Egyptology at the dawn of the Twenty-first Century: Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Egyptologists, Cairo, 2000, I (pp. 319–327). Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Majcherek, G. and Kołątaj, W. (2003). Alexandria, excavations and preservation work, 2001/2002. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 14, 19–31.

Parandowska, E. (2003). Conservation of mosaics from the early Roman villa at Kom al-Dikka, Alexandria. In P. Blanc (ed.), Les mosaïques, conserver pour présenter: actes, VIIe conférence du comité international pour la conservation des mosaïques, 22–28 novembre 1999 (pp. 103–110). Arles: Musée de l’Arles et de la Provence antiques.

Rodziewicz, E. (2003). On Alexandrian school of ivory carving in late antiquity. Bulletin de la Société Archéologique d’Alexandrie, 47, 49–69.

Zych, I. (2003). Wooden coffins from the Moslem cemetery at Kom el-Dikka. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 14, 32–37.

Koła̜taj, W. (2002). Kom el-Dikka, preservation work, 2000/2001. Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 13, 23–29.

Łukaszewicz, A. (2002). Ostatni ślad Atanazego (The last trace of Athanasius). In B. Iwaszkiewicz-Wronikowska and D. Próchniak (eds), Sympozja Kazimierskie poświęcone kulturze świata późnego antyku i wczesnego chrześcijaństwa III (pp. 209–213). Lublin: Towarzystwo Naukowe Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego.

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