powrót do strony głównej
english version
LEW PALMYREŃSKI NOWYM LOGO CENTRUM
zmodyfikowano
10-10-2017

Ceramic Patchwork in Hellenistic to Byzantine Phoenicia: regionalization and specialization of vessel production

Urszula Wicenciak

Abstract

An analysis of pottery production in ancient Phoenicia reveals not only the land division into city-states in Hellenistic times, but also the blending in individual periods of the multifarious cultural influences reaching in from the western coast of Asia Minor, the Aegean, North African coast and Italy. The native Phoenician tradition clearly loses in significance with the arrival of the Romans in the East.

Keywords

Phoenicia, Jiyeh/Porphyreon, Hellenistic/Roman/Byzantine pottery, pottery workshops/production, amphorae, kitchen vessels, common ware

References

PRIMARY SOURCES

Flavius Josephus, Bellum judaicum. Polish translation: Wojna żydowska, transl. by J. Radożycki, Warsaw: Rytm, 2001

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, transl. by H. Rackham, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006

Pseudo-Skylax’s periplous: the circumnavigation of the inhabited world: Text, translation and commentary, transl. by G. Shipley, Exeter: Bristol Phoenix Press, 2011

The geography of Strabo VII. Books 15–16, transl. by H.L. Jones, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006

SECONDARY SOURCES

Abdel-Rahman, A.-F.M. and Nader, F.H. (2002). Characterization of the Lebanese Jurassic–Cretaceous carbonate stratigraphic sequence: a geochemical approach. Geological Journal, 37(1), 69–91

Abdel-Rahman, A.-F.M. and Nassar, P.E. (2004). Cenozoic volcanism in the Middle East: petrogenesis of alkali basalts from northern Lebanon. Geological Magazine, 141(5), 545–563

Adan-Bayewitz, D. (1993). Common pottery in Roman Galilee: A study of local trade. Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press

Ala Eddine, A. (2003). Hellenistic stamped amphorae from Beirut (site code BEY 004). Archaeology & History in Lebanon, 17, 109–119

Ala Eddine, A. (2005). The development of Beirut amphorae. A general approach. In C. Morhange and M. Saghieh-Beydoun, La mobilité des paysages portuaires antiques du Liban [=BAAL Hors-série 2] (pp. 185–205). Beirut: Ministère de la Culture, Direction Générale des Antiquités

Anderson, W.P. (1987). The kilns and workshops of Sarepta (Sarafand, Lebanon): Remnants of Phoenician ceramic workshop. Berytus, 35, 41–66

Anderson, W.P. (1989). The pottery industry at Phoenician Sarepta (Sarafand, Lebanon), with parallels to kilns from other East Mediterranean sites. In P.E. McGovern and M.D. Notis (eds), Cross-craft and cross-cultural interactions in ceramics [=Ceramics and Civilization 4] (pp. 197–215). Westerville, OH: American Ceramic Society

Arslan, S., Gèze, R., and Abdul-Nour, H. (1995). Les Fossiles du Liban: guide pratique. Beirut: Meouchy Zakaria

Aubert, C. (1996). Bey 002: rapport préliminaire. BAAL, 1, 60–89

Aubert, C. (2004). Le commerce antique en Phénicie d’après les amphores locales et importées de Beyrouth. In J. Eiring and J. Lund (eds), Transport amphorae and trade in the Eastern Mediterranean: Acts of the international colloquium at the Danish Institute at Athens, September 26–29, 2002 [=Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens 5] (pp. 31–41). Aarhus: Aarhus University Press

Aubert, C. (2007). Agriculture et artisanat en Phénicie hellénistique d’après les fouilles de Beyrouth. In M. Sartre (ed.), Productions et échanges dans la Syrie grecque et romaine: actes du colloque de Tours, juin 2003 [=Topoi Supplement 8] (pp. 5–34). Lyon: Maison de l’Orient Méditerranéen

Bartl, K., Schneider, G., and Böhme, S. (1995). Notes on “Brittle Wares” in north-eastern Syria. Levant, 27(1), 165–177

Berlin, A. (1997). The plain wares. In S. Herbert (ed.), Tel Anafa II.1. The Hellenistic and Roman pottery [=JRA Supplementary Series 10/2] (pp. 1–244). Ann Arbor, MI: Kelsey Museum of the University of Michigan

Berlin, A.M. and Frankel, R. (2012). The sanctuary at Mizpe Yammim: Phoenician cult and territory in the Upper Galilee during the Persian Period. BASOR, 366, 25–78

Berlin, A.M. and Monnickendam-Givon, B. (2016). Akko Sandy Cooking Ware. In The Levantine Ceramics Project. Retrieved from http://www.levantineceramics.org/wares/akko-sandy-cooking-ware--2 [accessed: 7.07.2016]

Berlin, A.M., Shapiro, A., and Stone, P.J. (2016a). Akko Hellenistic Gritty cooking ware. In The Levantine Ceramics Project. Retrieved from http://www.levantineceramics.org/wares/akko-hellenistic-gritty-cooking-ware [accessed: 7.07.2016]

Berlin, A.M., Shapiro, A., and Stone, P.J. (2016b). Phoenician Semi-Fine A. In The Levantine Ceramics Project. Retrieved from http://www.levantineceramics.org/wares/phoenician-semi-fine-a [accessed: 7.07.2016]

Berlin, A.M., Shapiro, A., and Stone, P.J. (2016c). Phoenician white ware. In The Levantine Ceramics Project. Retrieved from http://www.levantineceramics.org/wares/phoenician-white-ware [accessed: 7.07.2016]

Bettles, E. (2003). Carinated-shoulder amphorae from Sarepta, Lebanon: a Phoenician commodity and its intra-regional distribution. Archaeology & History in Lebanon, 17, 60–79

Bikai, P.M., Fulco, W.J., and Marchand, J. (1996). Tyre: The shrine of Apollo. Amman

Blakely, J.A. and Bennett, W.J. (eds). (1989). Analysis and publication of ceramics: The computer data-base in archaeology [=BAR IS 551]. Oxford: B.A.R.

BouDagher-Fadel, M.K. and Lord, A.R. (2002). Larger foraminifera of the Jurassic Western Neotethys Ocean. Archaeology & History in Lebanon, 15, 87–94

BouDagher-Fadel, M.K. and Noujaim Clark, G. (2002). Shells of unicellular organism (foraminifera) date the rock formations of Lebanon. Archaeology & History in Lebanon, 15, 82–86

Calvet, Y. (1986). Les amphores chypriotes et leur diffusion en Méditerranée orientale. In J.-Y. Empereur and Y. Garlan (eds), Recherches sur les amphores grecques. Actes du colloque international organisé par le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, l’Université de Rennes II et l’École Française d’Athènes (Athènes, 10–12 Septembre 1984) [=BCH Supplément 13] (pp. 505–514). Athens: École Française d’Athènes

Carreras Monfort, C. and Williams, D.F. (2002). “Carrot” amphoras: a Syrian or Palestinian connection? In J.H. Humphrey (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Near East: Some recent archaeological research III [=JRA Supplementary Series 49] (pp. 133–144). Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology

Cox, K.G., Price, N.B., and Harte, B. (1988). An introduction to the practical study of crystals, minerals and rocks (Rev. 1st ed.). London: McGraw-Hill

Curvers, H.H. and Stuart, B. (2007). The BCD Archeology Project 2000–2006. BAAL, 9, 189–221

Daszewski, W.A., Majcherek, G., Sztetyłło, Z., and Zych, I. (1990). Excavations at Marina el-Alamein 1987–1988. MDAIK, 46, 15–51

Daszkiewicz, M., Bobryk, E., and Schneider, G. (2007). Functional properties analysis of kitchenware, illustrated on Brittle Ware. In M. Bonifay and J.-C. Tréglia (eds), LRCW 2. Late Roman coarse wares, cooking wares and amphorae in the Mediterranean. Archaeology and archaeometry II [=BAR IS 1662] (pp. 731–738). Oxford: Archaeopress

Domżalski, K., Wicenciak, U., El-Tayeb, M., and Waliszewski, T. (2005). Late Hellenistic and early Roman pottery production center at Jiyeh. Rescue excavations 2004. PAM, 16, 429–439

Dothan, M. (1976). Akko: interim excavation report. First season, 1973/4. BASOR, 224, 1–48

Dunand, M. (1954–1958). Fouilles de Byblos II.1–2. Texte: 1933–1938 [=Études et Documents d'Archéologie 3]. Paris: P. Geuthner

Dunand, M. and Duru, R. (1962). Oumm el-’Amed: une ville de l’époque hellénistique aux échelles de Tyr. Paris: Librairie d’Amérique et d’Orient

Dyczek, P. (1999). Amfory rzymskie z obszaru dolnego Dunaju: dystrybucja amfor i transportowanych w nich produktów w I–III w. po Chr. [Roman amphorae from the Lower Danube: distribution of amphorae and their contents in the 1st–3rd centuries AD]. Warsaw: Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego [in Polish]

Dyson, S.L. (1968). The excavations at Dura-Europos. Final report IV.1.3. The commonware pottery: The brittle ware. New Haven: Dura-Europos Publications

El Kareh, G. (2010). The basal cretaceous sandstone of Lebanon past, present and future climate change threats. In The 1st International Applied Geological Congress, Department of Geology, Islamic Azad University – Mashad Branch, Iran, 26–28 April 2010 (pp. 1515–1521). S.l.

Elayi, J. (1982). Studies in Phoenician geography during the Persian period. JNES, 41(2), 83–110

Elgavish, J. (1976). Pottery from the Hellenistic stratum at Shiqmona. Israel Exploration Journal, 26(2/3), 65–76

Evans, J. and Mills, P. (2012). Excavation, processing and studying the pottery from Ras El Bassit, Syria. Late Antique Archaeology, 9(1), 553–571

Florimont, C. (1984). Matériel céramique d’une fosse byzantine à Tell Keisân. Paper presented at the Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, Jérusalem, École biblique et archéologique française

Frangié, D. (2009). Beyrouth hellénistique: du port de l’époque perse à la colonie augustéenne (unpubl. Ph.D. diss.). Université Panthéon-Sorbonne

Frangié-Joly, D. (2014). Economy and cultural transfers: evidence of Hellenization and early Romanization in Beirut. In B. Fischer-Genz, Y. Gerber, and H. Hamel (eds), Roman pottery in the Near East: Local production and regional trade. Proceedings of the round table held in Berlin, 19–20 February 2010 [=Roman and Late Antique Mediterranean Pottery 3] (pp. 89–102). Oxford: Archaeopress

Frangié, D. and Wicenciak, U. (2012). Beyrouth et Jiyeh au sein des productions céramiques. Dossiers d’Archéologie, 350, 38–43

Fulford, M. and Peacock, D.P.S. (1984). Excavations at Carthage I.2. The Avenue du President Habib Bourguiba, Salammbo. The pottery and other ceramic objects from the site. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Gatier, P.-L., Charpentier, G., Harfouche, R., Maqdissi, M. al-, Mercier, F., Nordiguian, L., Pieri, D., and Poupet, P. (2003). Mission de Yanouh et de la haute vallée du Nahr Ibrahim. Rapport préliminaire 1999–2001. BAAL, 5, 93–152

Gatier, P.-L., Charpentier, G., Haïdar-Boustani, M., Harfouche, R., Mercier, F., Pieri, D., Poupet, P., and Zaven, T. (2004). Mission de Yanouh et de la haute vallée du Nahr Ibrahim 2002. BAAL, 6, 211–258

Gatier, P.-L., Atallah, C., Caillou, J.S., Charpentier, G., Mercier, F., Nassar, J., Nordiguian, L., Pieri, D., Rousset, M.-O., and Zaven, T. (2005). Mission de Yanouh et de la haute vallée du Nahr Ibrahim. Rapport préliminaire 2003–2004. BAAL, 8, 119–210

Gatier, P.-L., Atallah, C., Nassar, J., Pieri, D., Rousset, M.-O., and Zaven, T. (2007). Mission de Yanouh et de la haute vallée du Nahr Ibrahim. Rapport préliminaire 2003–2004 (suite). BAAL, 9, 161–188

Getzov, N., Avshalom Gorni, D., Gorin-Rosen, Y., Stern, E.J., Syon, D., and Tatcher, A. (2009). Ḥorbat ’Uza: The 1991 excavations II. The late periods [=IAA Reports 42]. Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority

Grainger, J.D. (1991). Hellenistic Phoenicia. Oxford: Clarendon Press

Hamel, H. (2008). Late 3rd/early 4th century pottery and glass from Baalbek/Heliopolis. BAAL, 12, 203–219

Hamel, H. (2010). Local coarse ware pottery from 4th century Baalbek/Heliopolis, Lebanon. In S. Menchelli, S. Santoro, M. Pasquinucci, and G. Guiducci (eds), LRCW 3: Late Roman coarse wares, cooking wares and amphorae in the Mediterranean. Archaeology and archaeometry. Comparison between Western and Eastern Mediterranean II [=BAR IS 2185/2] (pp. 877–884). Oxford: Archaeopress

Hamel, H. (2014). Roman pottery in Baalbek/Heliopolis. In B. Fischer-Genz, Y. Gerber, and H. Hamel (eds), Roman pottery in the Near East: Local production and regional trade. Proceedings of the round table held in Berlin, 19–20 February 2010 [=Roman and Late Antique Mediterranean Pottery 3] (pp. 67–78). Oxford: Archaeopress

Hartal, M. (1997a). Excavation of the Courthouse Site at Akko: the architecture and stratigraphy in Area TA. ‘Atiqot, 31, 3–30

Hartal, M. (1997b). Excavation of the Courthouse Site at Akko: summary and historical discussion. ‘Atiqot, 31, 109–114

Hawkes, C.F.C. and Hull, M.R. (1947). Camulodunum: First report on the excavations at Colchester, 1930–1939 [=Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London 14]. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Hayes, J.W. (1991). Paphos III. The Hellenistic and Roman pottery. Nicosia: Department of Antiquities

Hayes, J.W. (1997). Handbook of Mediterranean Roman pottery. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press

Hayes, J.W. (2000). From Rome to Beirut and beyond: Asia Minor and Eastern Mediterranean trade connections. Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautorum Acta, 36, 285–297

Hayes, J.W. (2003). Pottery Deposits from ‘Saranda Kolones’ Castle Site, Pafos, BSA 98, 447–516

Jabak-Hteit, S. (2003). Les jarres de l’époque perse du site Bey 010. Archaeology & History in Lebanon, 17, 80–94

Kerr, P.F. (1977). Optical mineralogy. New York: McGraw-Hill

Khalifeh, I.A. (1988). Sarepta II. The Late Bronze and Iron Age periods of area II, X: The University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania excavations at Sarafand, Lebanon. Beirut: Département des publications de l’Université libanaise

Kowatli, I., Curvers, H.H., Stuart, B., Sablerolles, Y., Henderson, J., and Reynolds, P. (2008). A pottery and glass production site in Beirut (BEY 015). BAAL, 10, 103–130

Krencker, D. and Zschietzschmann, W. (1938). Römische Tempel in Syrien II. Tafeln [=Denkmäler antiker Architektur 5]. Berlin: de Gruyter

Lemaire, A. (1976). Le monnayage de Tyr et celui dit d’Akko dans la deuxième moitié du IV e siècle avant J.-C. Revue numismatique, 6(18), 11–24

Lemaître, S. (2007). À propos des échanges en Syrie à lʼépoque romaine: les amphores de la fouille du Centre ville de Beyrouth Bey 002. Étude préliminaire. In M. Sartre (ed.), Productions et échanges dans la Syrie grecque et romaine: actes du colloque de Tours, juin 2003 [=Topoi Supplement 8] (pp. 271–295). Lyon: Maison de l’Orient Méditerranéen

Marquis, P. (2004). Les fouilles du Centre-Ville de Beyrouth. Dix ans après. In C. Doumet-Serhal (ed.), Decade: A decade of archaeology and history in the Lebanon (pp. 266–279). Beirut: Lebanese British Friends of the National Museum

Martin-Kilcher, S. (1994). Die römischen Amphoren aus Augst und Kaiseraugst: ein Beitrag zur römischen Handels- und Kulturgeschichte II. Die Amphoren für Wein, Fischsauce, Südfrüchte (Gruppen 2-24) und Gesamtauswertung [=Forschungen in Augst 7/2]. Augst: Römermuseum

Masri, M. (2005). Réchauds hellénistiques de BEY 004. Chantier „Zone des Églises”. In C. Morhange and M. Saghieh-Beydoun, La mobilité des paysages portuaires antiques du Liban [=BAAL Hors-série 2] (pp. 215–221). Beirut: Ministère de la Culture, Direction Générale des Antiquités

Mills, P. and Reynolds, P. (2014). Amphorae and specialized coarsewares of Ras al Bassit, Syria: local products and exports. In N. Poulou-Papadimitriou, E. Nodarou, and V. Kilikoglou (eds), LRCW 4: Late Roman coarse wares, cooking wares and amphorae in the Mediterranean. Archaeology and archaeometry. The Mediterranean: A market without frontiers I [=BAR IS 2616/1] (pp. 133–142). Oxford: Archaeopress

Ministry of Environment. (2001). Soils and land. In Lebanon state of the environment report (pp. 163–179). Retrieved from http://www.unep.org/dewa/westasia/Assessments/national_SOEs/west%20asia/Lebanon/Chap11SoilsandLand.pdf [accessed: 15.05.2012]

Młynarczyk, J. (2000). Pottery from the Hellenistic cistern at Sha’ar ha-Amakim. In 5. Epistēmonikē synantēsē gia tēn Hellēnistikē keramikē: chronologika provlēmata, kleista synola-ergastēria: praktika (pp. 225–235). Athens: Ekdosē tou Tameiou Archaiologikōn Porōn kai Apallotriōseōn

Młynarczyk, J. (2001). Local and regional wares at Tell Keisan in the Hellenistic period. EtTrav, 19, 238–262

Naveh, J. (1997). Excavation of the Courthouse Site at Akko: Phoenician seal impressions. ‘Atiqot, 31, 115–119

Ortali-Tarazi, R. and Stuart, B. (2004). Two rock-cut Roman tombs in Chhim. BAAL, 6, 107–134

Orton, C., Tyers, P., and Vince, A.G. (1995). Pottery in archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Peacock, D.P.S. and Williams, D.F. (1986). Amphorae and the Roman economy: An introductory guide. London: Longman

Pellegrino, E. (2007). Les céramiques communes de Beyrouth (secteur BEY 002) au début de l’époque romaine. Syria, 84, 143–168

Pritchard, J.B. (1975). Sarepta, a preliminary report on the Iron Age: Excavations of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, 1970–72. Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania

Pritchard, J.B. (1978). Recovering Sarepta, a Phoenician city: Excavations at Sarafand, Lebanon, 1969–1974, by the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press

Pritchard, J.B. (1988). Sarepta IV. The objects from area II, X: The University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania excavations at Sarafand, Lebanon. Beirut: Département des publications de l’Université libanaise

Regev, D. (2000). Akko-Ptolemais. The Phoenician Hellenistic pottery. In 5. Epistēmonikē synantēsē gia tēn Hellēnistikē keramikē: chronologika provlēmata, kleista synola-ergastēria: praktika (pp. 221–224). Athens: Ekdosē tou Tameiou Archaiologikōn Porōn kai Apallotriōseōn

Regev, D. (2004). The Phoenician transport amphora. In J. Eiring and J. Lund (eds), Transport amphorae and trade in the Eastern Mediterranean: Acts of the international colloquium at the Danish Institute at Athens, September 26–29, 2002 [=Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens 5] (pp. 337–352). Aarhus: Aarhus University Press

Regev, D. (2009–2010). ‘Akko-Ptolemais, a Phoenician city: The Hellenistic pottery. Mediterranean Archaeology, 22/23, 115–191

Reynolds, P. (1999). Pottery production and economic exchange in 2nd century Berytus: some preliminary observations of ceramic trends from quantified ceramic deposits from the Anglo-Lebanese excavations in Beirut. Berytus, 43, 35–110

Reynolds, P. (2000). The Beirut amphora type, 1st century BC–7th century AD: an outline of its formal development and some preliminary observations of regional economic trends. Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautorum Acta, 36, 387–395

Reynolds, P. (2003a). Amphorae in Roman Lebanon: 50 BC to AD 25. Archaeology & History in Lebanon, 17, 120–130

Reynolds, P. (2003b). Pottery and the economy in 8th century Beirut: an Umayyad pottery assemblage from the Roman Imperial baths (BEY 045). In C. Bakirtzis (ed.), VIIeCongrès International sur la Céramique médiévale en Méditerranée, Thessaloniki, 11–16 Octobre 1999: Actes (pp. 725–734). Athens: Caisse des Recettes Archéologiques

Reynolds, P. (2005a). Levantine amphorae from Cilicia to Gaza: A typology and analysis of regional production trends from the 1st to 7th centuries. In J.M. Gurt i Esparraguera, J. Buxeda i Garrigós, and M.A. Cau Ontiveros (eds), LRCW 1. Late Roman coarse wares, cooking wares and amphorae in the Mediterranean: Archaeology and archaeometry [=BAR IS 1340] (pp. 563–611). Oxford: Archaeopress

Reynolds, P. (2005b). Beirut 2. In Roman Amphorae: A digital resource. Retrieved from http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/view/amphora_ahrb_2005/details.cfm?id=320 [accessed: 22.07.2012]

Reynolds, P. (2008). Linear typologies and ceramic evolution. Facta. A Journal of Roman Material Culture, 2, 61–87

Reynolds, P. (2014). The Homs Survey (Syria): Contrasting Levantine trends in the regional supply of fine wares, amphorae and kitchen wares (Hellenistic to early Arab periods). In B. Fischer-Genz, Y. Gerber, and H. Hamel (eds), Roman and Late Antique Mediterranean Pottery 3. Roman Pottery in the Near East. Local Production and Regional Trade. Proceedings of the round table held in Berlin, 19-20 February 2010, 53–65

Reynolds, P. and Waksman, Y.S. (2007). Beirut cooking wares, 2nd to 7th centuries: local forms and north Palestinian imports. Berytus, 50, 59–81

Reynolds, P. and Waksman, Y.S. (2012). Beirut City Roman Coarse Ware. In The Levantine Ceramics Project. Retrieved from http://www.levantineceramics.org/wares [accessed: 30.06.2012]

Reynolds, P. and Waksman, Y.S. (2016). Workshop X ware. In The Levantine Ceramics Project. Retrieved from http://www.levantineceramics.org/wares/workshop-x-ware [accessed: 7.07.2016]

Reynolds, P., Waksman, Y.S., Lemaître, S., Curvers, H.H., Roumié, M., and Nsouli, B. (2010). An early Imperial Roman pottery production site in Beirut (BEY 015): chemical analyses and a ceramic typology. Berytus, 51–52, 71–115

Riley, J.A. (1979). Coarse pottery. In J.A. Lloyd (ed.), Excavations at Sidi Khrebish, Benghazi (Berenice) II [=Libya Antiqua Supplements 5] (pp. 91–467). Tripoli: Department of Antiquities, People’s Socialist Libyan Arab Jamahirya

Riley, J.A. (1981). The pottery from cisterns 1977.1, 1977.2 and 1977.3. In J.H. Humphrey (ed.), Excavations at Carthage 1977 conducted by the University of Michigan VI (pp. 86–124). Ann Arbor, MI: Kelsey Museum; The University of Michigan

Robinson, H.S. (1959). Pottery of the Roman period: Chronology [=Athenian Agora 5]. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Roumié, M., Nsouli, B., Atalla, C., and Waksman, S.Y. (2005). Application of PIXE using Al funny filter for cluster analysis of Byzantine amphorae from Beirut. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 227(4), 584–590

Roumié, M., Reynolds, P., Atallah, C., Bakraji, E., Zahraman, K., and Nsouli, B. (2006). Provenance study of excavated pottery from Beirut using PIXE cluster analysis. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 249(1–2), 612–615

Roumié, M., Waksman, S.Y., Nsouli, B., Reynolds, P., and Lemaı̂tre, S. (2004). Use of PIXE analysis technique for the study of Beirut amphora production in the Roman period. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 215(1–2), 196–202

Roumié, M., Wicenciak, U., Bakraji, E., and Nsouli, B. (2010). PIXE characterization of Lebanese excavated amphorae from Jiyeh archeological site. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 268(1), 87–91

Sader, H.S. (1997). Den Ruinen entsteigt die Vergangenheit: Archäologie in Beirut. Antike Welt, 28, 397–406

Saghieh, M. (1996). BEY 001 and 004 preliminary report. BAAL, 1, 23–59

Saidah, R. (1966). Fouilles de Khaldé. Rapport préliminaire sur les première et deuxième campagnes (1961–1962). Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth, 19, 51–90

Saidah, R. (1975). Khan Khaldé, une ville paléochrétienne sort de terre. Dossiers d’Archéologie, 12, 50–59

Saidah R. (1976). Khan Khalde, DossArch 16, 96-97.

Salles, J.-F. (2003). Byblos hellénistique. In La Syrie hellénistique [=Topoi Supplement 4] (pp. 53–109). Lyon: Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée

Schöne, R., Mau, A. (1909). Corpus Inscriptionum Latinorum, Supplement 2/III, Berlin

Shapiro, A. (2012). Petrographic analysis of the Crusader-period pottery. In E.J. Stern, ‘Akko I, the 1991–1998 excavations: The Crusader-period pottery [=IAA Reports 51/1] (pp. 103–126). Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority

Shapiro, A. and Stern, E.J. (2016). Acre Ware. In The Levantine Ceramics Project. Retrieved from http://www.levantineceramics.org/wares/acre-ware [accessed: 22.07.2016]

Silberstein, N. (2000). Hellenistic and Roman pottery. In Y. Hirschfeld, Ramat Hanadiv excavations: Final report of the 1984–1998 seasons (pp. 420–469). Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society

Stern, E. (ed.). (1995). Excavations at Dor, final report IB. Areas A and C. The finds [=Qedem Reports 2]. Jerusalem: Institute of Archaeology, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Stern, E.J. (2012). Pottery from Crusader Acre as evidence of correlation between pottery distribution and medieval Mediterranean trade routes. In M.I. Hladkych (ed.), 1000 rokiv vizantijsʹkoï torhivli: (V-XV stolittja): zbirka naukovych prac’ (pp. 121–128). Kiev: Čalʹcev

Thalmann, J.-P. (1978). Tell ’Arqa (Liban Nord) campagnes I–III (1972–1974) Chantier I. Rapport préliminaire. Syria, 55(1–2), 1–151

Verheye, W.H. and de la Rosa, D. (2005). Mediterranean soils. In W.H. Verheye (ed.), Encyclopedia of land use, land cover and soil sciences VII. Soils and soil sciences. Retrieved from http://www.eolss.net [accessed: 27.08.2012]

Vipard, P. (1995). Les amphores carottes (forme Schöne-Mau XV). État de la question. In L. Rivet (ed.), Actes du congrès de Rouen, 25–28 mai 1995 (pp. 51–76). Marseille: Société française d’étude de la céramique antique en Gaule

Vokaer, A. (2005). Typological and technological study of brittle ware in Syria. In J.M. Gurt i Esparraguera, J. Buxeda i Garrigós, and M.A. Cau Ontiveros (eds), LRCW 1: Late Roman coarse wares, cooking wares and amphorae in the Mediterranean: Archaeology and archaeometry [=BAR IS 1340] (pp. 697–709). Oxford: Archaeopress

Vokaer, A. (2010). Cooking in a perfect pot. Shapes, fabrics and function of cooking ware in late antique Syria. In S. Menchelli, S. Santoro, M. Pasquinucci, and G. Guiducci (eds), LRCW 3: Late Roman coarse wares, cooking wares and amphorae in the Mediterranean. Archaeology and archaeometry. Comparison between Western and Eastern Mediterranean I [=BAR IS 2185/1] (pp. 115–129). Oxford: Archaeopress

Vokaer, A. (2014), A 3rd to 4th century AD pottery assemblage from Apamea and some further considerations on pottery production and distribution in Roman Syria. In B. Fischer-Genz, Y. Gerber, and H. Hamel (eds), Roman and Late Antique Mediterranean Pottery 3. Roman Pottery in the Near East. Local Production and Regional Trade. Proceedings of the round table held in Berlin, 19-20 February 2010, 37–51

Waksman, S.Y. (2002). Céramiques levantines de l’époque des croisades: le cas des productions à pâte rouge des ateliers de Beyrouth. Revue d’Archéométrie, 26, 67–77

Waksman, S.Y., Reynolds, P., Bien, S., and Tréglia, J.-C. (2005). A major production of late Roman “Levantine” and “Cypriot” common wares. In J.M. Gurt i Esparraguera, J. Buxeda i Garrigós, and M.A. Cau Ontiveros (eds), LRCW 1: Late Roman coarse wares, cooking wares and amphorae in the Mediterranean: Archaeology and archaeometry [=BAR IS 1340] (pp. 311–325). Oxford: Archaeopress

Waksman, Y., Roumié, M., Lemaître, S., Nsouli, B., and Reynolds, P. (2003). Une production d’amphores “carottes” à Beyrouth à l’époque romaine? Revue d’Archéométrie, 27, 95–102

Waksman, S.Y., Stern, E.J., Segal, I., Porat, N., and Yellin, J. (2008). Elemental and petrographic analyses of local and imported ceramics from Crusader Acre. ‘Atiqot, 59, 157–190

Walley, C.D. (n.d.). The geology of Lebanon: A summary. Retrieved from http://ddc.aub.edu.lb/projects/geology/geology-of-lebanon/ [accessed: 25.09.2012]

Waliszewski, T., Ortali-Tarazi, R. with contributions by F. Alpi, K. Chmielewski, A.-S. Dalix, K. Domżalski, M. Kisielewicz, M. Łuszczewska, L. Nordiguian, I. Périssé, I., M. el-Tayeb, P. Tchorek, M. Wagner, and U. Wicenciak (2004). Village romain et byzantin à Chhîm-Marjiyat. Rapport préliminaire (1996–2002). BAAL, 6, 5–105

Waliszewski, T. and Wicenciak, U. (2015). Chhim, Lebanon: a Roman and Late Antique village in the Sidon hinterland. Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies, 3(4), 372–395

Waliszewski, T., Wicenciak, U., El-Tayeb, M., and Juchniewicz, K. (2007). Jiyeh (Porphyreon). Explorations 2005. PAM, 17, 421–429

Waliszewski, T., Wicenciak, U., El-Tayeb, M., Domżalski, K., Witecka, A., Wagner, M., T. Herbich, I. Noureddine, M. Woźniak, K. Kotlewski, and R. Żukowski (2008). Jiyeh (Porphyreon). Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine settlement on the southern coast of Lebanon. Preliminary report on the 1997 and 2003–2005 seasons. BAAL, 10, 5–80

Weinberg, S.S. (1970). Tel Anafa. The second season. Muse, 4, 15–24

Weinberg, S.S. (1971). Tel Anafa: The Hellenistic town. Israel Exploration Journal, 21(2–3), 86–109

Weinberg, S.S. (1972). Tel Anafa 1972. The fourth season. Muse, 6, 8–18

Wicenciak, U. (2005). Jiyeh – ceramic industry centre in Hellenistic and Roman times in Lebanon. Paper presented during the First Lebanese Pottery Workshop, Beirut

Wicenciak, U. (2010). Local Roman coarse wares from Chhim (southern Lebanon). In S. Menchelli, S. Santoro, M. Pasquinucci, and G. Guiducci (eds), LRCW 3: Late Roman coarse wares, cooking wares and amphorae in the Mediterranean. Archaeology and archaeometry. Comparison between Western and Eastern Mediterranean II [=BAR IS 2185/2] (pp. 885–890). Oxford: Archaeopress

Wicenciak, U. (2012). Local Hellenistic “Phoenician”-type amphora and other pottery vessels from excavations in Jiyeh (Porphyreon) (seasons 2008–2009). PAM, 21, 446–453

Wicenciak, U. (2014). Pottery production in the Late Hellenistic and Early Roman Periods at Jiyeh – ancient Porphyreon (Lebanon). In B. Fischer-Genz, Y. Gerber, and H. Hamel (eds), Roman pottery in the Near East: Local production and regional trade. Proceedings of the round table held in Berlin, 19–20 February 2010 [=Roman and Late Antique Mediterranean Pottery 3] (pp. 103–124). Oxford: Archaeopress

Wicenciak, U. (2016). Porphyreon. Hellenistic and Roman pottery production center in the Sidon hinterland [=PAM Monograph Series 7]. Warsaw: PCMA UW

Wicenciak U., Chhim forthcoming

Wicenciak, U., El Tayeb, M., Domżalski, K., and Waliszewski, T. (2004). Preliminary report on a salvage campaign at Jiyeh, 2004: the pottery production area. Światowit, 5 (46) Fasc. A, 129–134

Wieder, M. and Adan-Bayewitz, D. (2002). Soil parent materials and the pottery of Roman Galilee: a comparative study. Geoarchaeology, 17(4), 393–415

Zych, I., Obłuski, A., and Wicenciak, U. (2008). Marina el-Alamein Site Presentation Project (ARCE/EAP): Preliminary archaeological report. PAM, 18, 83–100